GATE Syllabus for Chemistry (XL-H)

Part 1: Atomic Structure and Periodicity

Wave particle duality, Planck’s quantum theory, uncertainty principle, electronic configuration of atoms, quantum mechanical model of hydrogen atom, and ions Periodic table & periodic properties: ionization energy, electro negativity, electron affinity, and atomic size

Part 2: Structure and Bonding

MO and VB approaches for diatomic molecules, Ionic and covalent bonding, VSEPR theory and shape of molecules, resonance, hybridization, dipole moment, structure parameters such as bond angle, bond length, and bond energy, van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding. Ionic solids, lattice energy (Born‐Haber cycle) and ionic radii, HSAB principle

Part 3: s, p and d Block Elements

Oxides, alkaline earth metals, halides and hydrides of alkali, B, Al, Si, N, P, and S, Coordination complexes: valence bond and crystal field theory, geometry, color, magnetic properties and isomerism, General characteristics of 3d elements

Part 4: Chemical Equilibria

Ionic equilibria in solution, Colligative properties of solutions, solubility product, hydrolysis of salts, common ion effect, pH, buffer and their applications, Equilibrium constants (Kc, Kp and Kx) for homogeneous reactions

Part 5: Electrochemistry

Conductance, cell potentials, Kohlrausch law, emf, Nernst equation, thermodynamic aspects and their applications, Galvanic cells

Part 6: Reaction Kinetics

Order of reaction, Rate constant, molecularity, zero, first and second order kinetics, activation energy, catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions

Part 7: Thermodynamics

First law, internal energy, reversible and irreversible processes, enthalpy, heat of reaction, Kirchoff equation, Hess’s law, Second law, heat of formation, entropy, Gibbs‐Helmholtz equation, Third law of thermodynamics, free energy and work function, free energy change, Clausius‐Clapeyron equation, equilibrium constant and Trouton’s rule

Part 8: Structure-Reactivity Correlations and Organic Reaction Mechanisms

Acids and bases, optical and geometrical isomerism, electronic and steric effects, tautomerism, Elementary treatment of SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 reactions, conformers and concept of aromaticity, Hoffmann and Saytzeff rules, Markownikoff rule and Kharash effect, addition reactions, Aromatic electrophilic substitutions, Diels‐Alder, orientation effect as exemplified by various functional groups Wittig and hydroboration reactions Identification of functional groups by chemical tests

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